- Spear – a long pole with a sharp point at the end, possibly even a separate point, such as a spearhead. Can be thrown or thrust.
- Javelin – smaller lighter version of the above. Usually meant to be thrown.
- Lance – a heavy, long pole meant to be held and thrust.
|Roman Saddle -- 4 horns but no stirrups|
Interestingly, the foe the classical Romans feared the most was the cataphract – the heavy horse cavalry that originated in Parthia (modern Iran). This force featured huge warhorses specially bred for the purpose (the first historical record of a breeding program). Both rider and horse were covered from head to foot with scale armor.
|Cataphract. This one is from the 5th century -- roughly "King Arthur's" time.|
Success in a tournament didn’t just win a reputation; it also was worth a lot of money in prizes and ransoms. You could also win -- or lose -- your armor or your horse. This could be the making of a poor knight. (Yes, the movie "A Knight's Tale" does have some historical veracity.) In fact, it's how William Marshall, who started as the younger son of an insignificant lord, earn both wealth and the attention and trust of the Plantagenant kings.
Jousting also resulted in some modifications to the chest piece (or cuirasse) of the set of armor. To help shield the chest from a powerful blow, armorers started shaping the piece so there was a hallow between the metal and the wearer's chest. Hence the reason why the armor worn during the Rennaissance and later has a pot-bellied look.